We have also objective to provide information about education to student, so that they may aware about education, future and career.
There are some usefull following links:
University Web Adress
Punjab University pu.edu.pk
Rawalpindi Board biserwp.edu.pk
Open University aiou.edu.pk
Poetry Web Adress
About Pakistan & Pictures
JOURNAL ROUTINE OF FIVE DAYS
• Reporting day:
o (a) Reception.
Arrival/Reception guideline by ISPR§
Boarding and Lodging§ guideline by ISPR
(b) Checking of documents.
What to bring with you§ and what are prohibited items (explained below)
What are the Documents§ Required (explained below)
(c) Allotment of chest numbers.
(d) Candidates are photographed.
(e) Administration Staff's address
(f) Writing of unforgettable incident.
• Opening Address by a Deputy President.
• 1st Testing day: Psychologist's day
o (a) Intelligence Test. (explained below)
(b) Psychological Tests. (explained below)
*Announcement of screening out result
*Remaining Psychological Tests (Screened out Candidates will not attend the subsequent tests)
• 2nd Testing day: GTO's day
o Indoor Tasks
Group discussions. (explained§ below)
Group planning. (explained below)§
o Outdoor Tasks
§ Progressive group tasks (PGT). (explained below)
Half group tasks (HGT).§ (explained below)
Interview. (explained below)§
• 3rd Testing day: GTO's day
(a)§ Individuals obstacles(explained below)
(b) Command Task. (explained§ below)
(c) Final group task. (explained below)§
(d) Mutual assessment
(e) Interview (left overs)
• 4th Testing day: Conference day
o (a) Conference.
(b) Re-interview (if required)
(c) Payment of TA/DA
Note :They are Explained Below.
What are the Documents Required
You are required to bring along the following ORIGINAL documents:
• Original Matric certificate issued by board. Only result card/ mark sheet will not be accepted.
• Detailed marks sheet or Result card of matric
• Those candidates who have not been issued with Matric Certificate by their concerned board should furnish a certificate in this regard signed only by the Secretary Board. Any such certificate issued by school/college will no be accepted.
• The candidates who appear with a "Duplicate" or "Revised" matric certificate or if they have amendments in their names or date of births, should provide certificate explaining the circumstances under which they were issued with "Duplicate" or "Revised" or Amended matric Certificate, signed only by the Secretary Board.
• The original certificate and marks sheet/result card of Intermediate (FA/FSc, DAE/D.Com/DBA/ICS) is mandatory.
• Appearing candidates who have completed FA/FSc part-I will bring original part-I marks sheet along with surety/hope certificate of college.
• In case of "O", "A" level, equivalence certificate and birth certificate are compulsory. PHOTOCOPY OF ANY CERTIFICATE WILL NOT BE ACCEPTABLE.
• Those candidates who have applied for the courses demanding qualifications higher than intermediate are also required to bring their superior degree/ certificates as mentioned in the concerned course advertisement.
• Domicile is a must for all those candidates of remote areas, who are eligible to apply on 45% marks in FA/FSc.
• No plastic coating is allowed on degrees/certificates except those which are already coated and cannot be removed.
• In case of non-possession of above-mentioned documents you will not be allowed to appear in the test and will be reverted back without paying traveling allowance.
• Before your arrival, you may contact GSO-2 (Selection) of your concerned ISSB on telephone number mentioned at the end or GSO-2(Selection) ISSB Kohat to clarify any doubt about educational certificates.
What to bring with you and what are prohibited items
You are advised to bring your clothing according to the prevalent weather.
1. Shorts white (1 Pair)
2. Canvas Shoes/Joggers (1 Pair)
3. Socks White (1 Pair)
4. Vest or sports shirt white (1 Pair)
5. Pull-over or
For Female Candidates
1. Track Suit (1 Pair)
2. Canvas Shoes/Joggers (1 Pair)
3. Socks White (1 Pair)
4. Vest or sports shirt white (1 Pair)
5. Pull-over or
Note: Above items are also available with ISSB canteen on payment.
Candidates are expected to appear before the Selection Board with a clean and smart posture. In this regard, following dress may be worn during Group Discussion, Group Planning and Interview with proper hair cut and shave. Summer: Shalwar Qameez /Shirt and Trousers
Winter: Shalwar Qameez / Lounge Suit / Combination or shirt, Trousers and Pull over /
• Specific to Female Candidate
o You may wear any respectable dress according to norms of our society.
o Also bring along Set of Hair band/safety pins.
o Nails Should be finely trimmed.
o Hair Should be Neatly tied.
o No jewelry item is to be worn during IOs (obstacles/Tasks).
o For outdoor task you will be required to wear Tracksuit.
Candidates must not bring following items in ISSB:
• Camera (all types)
• Audio - visual items
• Knife / Sharp weapon
• Mobile Phone
• Liquors/ Drugs
• Fire Arms
• Government banned items
• Any valuable items
• Large sum of money
The mode of these written intelligence tests for the selection of suitable officers for the Defense Forces of Pakistan at the ISSB is not very difficult. The candidate is required to make use of his acquired knowledge and his own inborn intelligence to solve problems. The questions set in these tests do not require long answers, but they are required to reply in "yes" or "no" or put a tick around the correct answer or to write the serial number of the correct answer out of a few suggested answers on the given sheet of paper, which usually begin from easy to lengthy questions. Although, question set in these tests are not so difficult but the time of answering these questions is short. The candidate has to make up his high speed in answering these numerous questions.
" There are two kinds of intelligence tests, Verbal and Non-verbal.
In Verbal Tests, the items are expressed in language forms. These tests are of various types, like;
• Inserting of missing letter
Example: Day is to night as truth is to "Falsehood". (In this sentence the missing word falsehood has been inserted)
Example 2: Man is to run as bird is to ---------
Answers: Fly, Run, Weak (correct answer is Fly),
• Inserting of missing number or figure
Example: Complete the series:
2, 6, 9, 13, 16, --, --
In missing figure questions, a series of drawing or patterns or designs are arranged in the particular pattern and the candidate is asked to choose the required figures out of the choices indicated, which will come next in the series. These are the non-verbal types of tests.
• Words Forming
This test measure the ability of the candidate in word building. Here, the words are built either by prefixing (before) or suffixing (fixing at the end) new letters or taking off from or adding new letters to the body of the words.
Example: Imagine a single letter which when added to the body of the following words forms entirely new words;
FIST, TICK, HEAT, BUST
Solution: The candidate will see that if the word R is added to each of the given words then new words will be; FIRST, TRICK, HEART, BURST
Hence the answer is R
• Jumbled Words
The word jumble means to be mixed together without order.
Example: Which choice mentions the last letter of the word from the following jumbled spelling?
Choices: L, B, F, T
Answer: L (the correct word is Football)
• Formation of correct sentence
Example: Rearrange the following jumbled words to form a sensible sentence.
o (1)The bud nipped must be evil in the.
(2)All cats are not cats but all animals are animals.
(3)One of the foretell to share things cannot come.
o (1)The evil must be nipped in the bud.
(2)All cats are animals but all animals are not cats.
(3)One cannot foretell the shape of things to come.
• General knowledge tests
This is a test of general knowledge where the candidate is required to keep his general knowledge up to date.
• Alphabetical test
This test is based on alphabets. If a candidate has sharp memory then this question becomes quite simple.
Example: It takes 3 minutes to boil an egg. How much times will it take to boil 6 eggs together?
Choices: 18, 6, 3
• Completion test
In this test, some letters of the words, whose meaning are given against them are missing, the candidate is asked to fill in those missing letters.
Example: Insert suitable letters in the following:
o (1)-ar-e (big)
(3)-h-rt (not tall)
(4)-m-ll (not big)
Answer: (2) L G (2)L (3)S O (4)S A (5)AA
• Synonym test
The word synonym means "a name or word having the same meaning with another"
Example: Write the number of the pair of the words which do not possess the same kind of meaning as the others?
o (1)Honesty and Integrity
(2)Bondage and Freedom
(3)Risk and Danger
(4)Pain and Agony
• Direction test
This test required a keen sense of section. The candidate must remember the distance covered in the direction. This will help him to answer the question correctly.
Example: If you start from point A and walk 5 miles towards the west, then turn right and walk 4 miles towards the north, then turn right again and walk 3 miles, then which choices mentions the direction in which you are going?
Choices: North, South, West, East
• Spotting the stranger
The candidates are supplied a group of words or numerical values in this test. Some of the words in group relate to one particular class but one or more words do not belong to that class.
Example: Write the number of the subject which is dissimilar from the other subjects;
Choices: Principal, Professor, Headmaster, Teacher, Students
Answer is 'Student'
• Coding and decoding
Giving code or artificial values to letter of alphabet. The word code means "a collection of digit of law or a system of rules and regulations" . Letters of alphabets in this test do not stand for themselves but for some other letters.
Example: if Y C V G T means W A T E R then what does H K T G mean?
Solution: In this question;
o Y stands for W
C stands for A
V stands for T
G stands for E
T stands for R
A careful observation brings out that each letter in the alphabets stands for the letter two paces preceding it. Using the same principle, the letter H K T G will stand for F I R E.
• Commonsense test
This is a simple and easy test and it required only a common sence.
Example: 5 years ago, khalid was 10 years older then ali. What is the difference between their ages at present?
Choices: 10, 5, 15
• Multiple choice test
In this test, an incomplete statement is followed by some alternative choices as answers. The candidate is asked to chose one or more suitable choices of answers that complete the question or the statement.
Example: Which choice answers the following question?
o (1)It is very clear city.
(2) Numerous foreigners live in it.
(3) The president lives in it.
(4) It is the capital of
Answer is (4)
• Arithmetic test
These type of tests involves some arithmetic values which are added, multiplied, divide, subtracted by some other numerical values.
The non-verbal intelligence tests comprise of;
• Matrix test
In these tests a series of designs are displayed. The candidate is required to complete the series or delete any particular design which does not relate to the series.
• Word association test
The word association means, free association in which a word serves as the stimulus object. Candidates are advised that while using a word as stimulus, not to write lengthy sentences. Meaningful and brief sentences are very helpful.
For these physical tasks you should be carrying white short shirt, while shorts, white canvas shoes and white socks.
Helpful Hints for Progressive Group task
In tackling the obstacles of "Progressive Group Task", there are as a matter of fact, three main principles which are involved. They are, lever, bridge and swing. The plank or planks that are employed as helping material can be used either in the form of a lever or bridge according to the circumstances. A rope should invariably be tied, as the case may be, to the remotest end of the lever or bridge. This is very essential because it becomes impossible for the candidates to get or pull back the plank once they crossed over.
Some of the fundamental rules which the Group Testing Officer clears to the candidates before beginning the task are;
1. Out of Bounds Rule
The whole ground area and any other structure painted red between the start line and the finish line, and their helping materials and loads are out of bounds to the candidates. There is punishment for any candidate or any object that touches the out of bounds area. The defaulter have soon to go back to the star line of that obstacle. If any object touches the out bounds areas, then the object should be carried back by the defaulter to the stat-line and then it should be brought forward again.
2. The Four Feet Rule
The candidates are not permitted to jump any distance exceeding 4 feet either in length or in height. Such distances, are to be crossed with the assistance of the helping materials (ropes or bellies).
3. The Group Rule
Every obstacle should be crossed by the whole group with its material and load, before the next obstacle is tried by anybody in the group.
4. The Time Rule
The task should be concluded in 40 minutes. There is no time limit for each of the four obstacles which are included in this task.
G.T.O (Group Testing Officer) Test
The group discussion or group discussion task has assumed great importance. In the Group Testing Officer Task or G.T.O Task, the candidate creates the first impression on the Group Testing Officer (G.T.O) and other members of his group. The good performance of the candidate in the task of group discussion creates a good impression on the Group Testing Officer, and enrich his role in subsequent group tasks. As first impression is the last impression, hence the candidate must try his best to show his worth in group discussion.
During group discussion all candidates are arranged to sit in a circle. In the beginning every candidate introduces himself, like which city he belongs to, his educational qualifications, hobbies etc. Thereafter, the group discussions exercise begins. In this task, usually, two subjects are read out to the candidates and they are required to choose one of them for the sake of discussion. The subject which is agreed upon by the majority of the candidates is accepted by the Group Testing Officer for discussion.
Group Planning Exercise
This exercise begins soon after the Group Discussion, It is an outdoor task, where the Group Testing officer reads out the narrative and with the help of the sand-model or sketch map explains the situation to the candidates. The map or model contains the scale, legend etc. If the candidates required any clarification to some pints, then it is cleared by the Group Testing Officer. Thereafter, the candidates are to write down their individual solutions in the paper provided for the purpose. The candidate are not allowed to consult each other while writing down their solutions. The candidate have to write down their chest numbers on the tip of the writing papers. The time for this written work is about 10 minutes. Thereafter, the candidate are required to discuss among themselves the situation and problems so as to arrive at a group solutions or plan. Every candidate is desired to express his views on the situation. All the candidates must arrive at a group plan. In the case the whole group is not unanimous in deciding the solution, then the plan accepted by the majority of the candidates is presented as the plan of the group. Then one of the candidate who is selected by the group itself stand up as a spokesman and present the plan to the Group Testing Officer. The time limit for discussion presentation is the observation and study of natural phenomena all around him. The time limit for discussion and presentation of the group plan is usually 20 minutes. After the presentation of group plan, the Group Testing Officer may ask the other candidate to give comments or criticism or suggestion. If any, to improve or modify the plan.
Progressive Group task
This task falls in outdoor series of tasks. In this task a group of 8 to 0 candidates are required to cross 4 obstacles of hindrances or restrictions in 40 minutes as a whole group. In tackling these hindrances, the candidates have to attach much importance to bridge, lever and swing as well as the helping material which they have to carry while crossing obstacles. Group testing officer will explain the nature and rules of task in the beginning.
Half Group Task
In Half Group Task candidates of a group who are, usually 8 to 10 are divided into two groups. In this task, each half group has to face only a single hindrance. They must carry the main material and the helping material with them, on crossing the obstacle to the other side of the obstacle.
Within the starting line and the finishing line, there are two wooden platform Q and R and a moveable drum P. The middle portion of the drum which is marked red, is out of bounds. There are also three small planks lying outside the starting line. The candidate should cross over from the starting line to the finishing line with the aid of those small planks.
In interview, generally, such questions are put to the candidate which bring out his common sense, his familiarity with the current national and international happenings and current social and political trends of the world.
Remember, the person who conducts interview is not merely interest in his mere knowledge. Its gibes close attention to the candidate's reactions to various situations. It may, intentionally, endeavor to upset the mental stability of the candidate in order to discover his true personality. The Interviewer may attempt to annoy or provoke him by pronouncing his incorrectly, by not offering a chair to sit immediately, by asking to person certain odd errand, like, fetching water, serving tea, removing some furniture, etc. It is against respect to his by deliberately attributing certain wrong statements to him, pointing out to certain sports on his clothes, mixing up of personal facts. There are instances, where the interviewee has been asked to sing a song, recite a poem, crack a joke, etc. Such curious situations are coined by the Interviewer for bringing our the true value of the interviewee. In all such odd circumstances, the interviewee should attempt to retains his calmness and presence of mind.
Usually the subjects for interview are Indo Pak history, World history, Geography, Physics, Chemistry, General Knowledge, Current affairs.
Final Group Task
In the series of Group Testing Officers' outdoor tasks, the "Final Group Task", is the last task. The time allowed in this task is usually 10 minutes but generally it is shortened by one or two minutes. As this task , once again is a task of group as whole, hence the qualities of team spirit, co-operation, initiative, proper planning, etc will count much.
In the following obstacle, the candidates are given a rope, a plank and a structure. It is also their duty to take wounded man on the structure. The red portion is out of bound in this task.
In this task, each candidate in the group, is selected in turn as commander by the Group Testing Officer. The commander chooses three or four candidates as his assistants for tackling an obstacle. The commander will be successful in his task if possesses qualities of a leader. He should be very intelligent in the selection of his assistants, in imparting them proper brief instructions, in getting labor out of them and assisting them properly whenever required. The assistants of the commander should also strive for the success of their leader. All the way, they should carry out his orders with sincere spirit and loyalty. The main purpose of the Group Testing Officer in the performance of command task, is to assess the value of the candidate as a commander. He also gets a glimpse of the qualities of the assistants of the commander, The candidates should also prove themselves to be useful, sincere, and loyal subordinates.
The time allowed for the execution of the command task is usually 10 minutes.
• As a commander he should avoid seeking any suggestions from his subordinates.
• In order to perform the duty of a commandership the candidate should avoid to do the work himself. He should supervise the whole work. At times, if necessary, he can extend his helping hand to others in the performance of smooth work.
• The candidate as a commander, must see that nobody stands idle.
• He must give utmost importance to the items of planning, supervising and execution of the work.
• He should select a place which can enable him supervise the work in a most efficient manner.
It is the individual task of each candidate, where candidate has to face every obstacle or hindrance or restriction in his individual or personal manner. These obstacles are usually 10 in number which are to tackled by a candidate in a brief time of 3 minutes only.
1. Long jump.
2. Walking over inclined small wooden planks.
3. Crawling like a monkey.
4. Waking across parallel ropes.
5. Rope climbing
6. Passing through tyre.
7. Tarzan swing
8. Tarzan jump.
9. Crossing over horizontal plank.
10. Running over inclined plank.
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
• District Nazim
• District Naib Nazim
• District Council
• Number of Tehsils
Maj.(r) Tahir Sadiq Khan
Malik Sameen Khan
Attock District (Urdu: اٹک) is located in the northwest of the Punjabprovince of Pakistan. The district was created in 1904 by the merger of Talagang tehsil from the Jhelum District and the Pindigheb, Fatehjang and Attock tehsils from Rawalpindi District of British Raj. The original name was Campbellpure district after Sir Campbell who founded the city of Campbellpure to the southeast of Attock Town. The name of the district was changed to Attock in 1985.
Attock District is bordered by the Haripur and Swabi districts of North-West Frontier Province to the north, the district of Rawalpindi to the east, the district of Chakwal ot the southeast, the district of Mianwali to the southwest, and North-West Frontier Province districts of Kohat and Nowshera to the west and northwest. The river Indus forms the western boundary of the district
Attock district has a typical north Pakistani climate with very hot summers and very cold winters. The northern part of the district is more humid and has a comparatively moderate climate compared to the southern part of the district. The district possesses mainly hills, plateaus and dissected plains with the river Indus on the northern and western borders of the district. The river Haro from Haripur passes through the north of the tehsil of Attock. The area to the north of the river Haro is a flood plain with fertile soil. The average annual rainfall in the district is 783 mm.
The district had a population of 1,274,935 of which 20.45% were urban in 1998.
Late Sir Sardar Sikandar Hayat Khan (First Muslim Governer and Prime Minister of United Punjab),
Late Sir Malik Muhammad Amin Khan of Shamasabad,
Late Sir Sardar Muhammad Nawaz Khan, former Defence Minister,
Late Sardar Shaukat Hayat Khan of Wah (former MLA & MNA and prominent Leader of Muslim League),
Late Sardar Mumtaz Ali Khan Advocate of Wah (former MLA & Minister of West Pakistan),
Late Syed Peer Safiuddin of Makhad (former MNA),
Late Malik Muhammad Akram Khan Bar-at-law of Shamasabad (former MLA),
Late Ahmad Waheed Akhtar Advocate (Former Senator and MNA and a prominent Leader of PPP),
Late Syed Ashiq Kaleem (former Advisor Governer of Punjab and founder Chairman of PPP District Attock),
Late Sardar Muhammad Sadiq Khan of Bahter (former Advisor Chief Minister Punjab and MPA),
Sardar Manzar Ameer Khan of Thatta (current Tehsil Nazim Jand)
Sardar Amir Khan of Thatta (former Vice Chairman District Council Attock)
Late Syed Mir Ahmad Shah advocate (former Advisor Governer of Punjab),
Alhaj Taj Muhammad Khanzada (Promenent Leader of Muslim League and former MNA and MPA),
Qari Saeed-ur-Rehman (Central Leader of JUI and former Provincial Minister of Punjab),
Sheikh Aftab Ahmad (former State Minister of Pakistan and a leader of Muslim League Nawaz),
Malik Hakmeen Khan (former Provincial Minister, Senator and a famous Central leader of PPP),
Sardar Sikandar Hayat Khan (Former Provincial Minister and MPA, and a Leader of PPP),
Malik Muhammad Aslam Khan of Shamasabad (former Provincial Minister & MNA),
Malik Lal Khan of Kamrial (former MNA and Leader of Muslim League Nawaz Group),
Malik Ameer Muhammad Khan of Pindigheb(former MNA and a leader of PPP),
Malik Atta Muhammad Khan of Kotfateh Khan (Former MPA),
Malik Atta Muhammad Khan of Khunda (former Chairman District Council Attock),
Malik Muhammad Asif Khan (former MPA from Fatehjang and a leader of Muslim League Nawaz Group)
(i) Attock City
(ii) Chach area
Malik Amin Aslam Khan of Shamsabad, Minister of State for Environment.
(i) Jand Tehsil
(ii)Pandi Gheb Tehsil
Malik Allah Yar Khan of Khunda Chairman Public Accounts Committee.
(i) Hassan Abdal Tehsil
(ii) Fateh Jang Tehsil
(iv) Union Councils Golra and Akhori of Tehsil Attock
Mr. Shaukat Aziz
Prime Minister Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Syed Ejaz Hussain Bokhari Advocate former Chairman District Council Attock.
Col (r) Shuja Khanzada of Shadi Khan Provincial Minister
Sardar Muhammad Ali Khan Provincial Parliamentary secretary
Col (r) Malik Muhammad Anwar Provincial Minister
Peer Abbas Mohi-ud-Din Shad of Makhad Shareef
Former Chairman of District Council Attock Sardar Mehmood Khan Advocate is Member Senate of Pakistan.
PPP Central Leader Malik Hakmeen Khan and Late Ahmad Waheed Akhtar Advocate were also Members of Senate.
Attock District covers an area of 6,857 km² and is subdivided into six tehsils named after their major towns:
Qazi Khalid Mehmood Nazim Tehsil Attock
Sardar Arjamand Zaheer Afzal Khan Nazim Tehsil Fatehjang
Haji Shafqat Ali Khan Tahirkheli Nazim Tehsil Hassanabdal
Sardar Manzar Ameer Khan Nazim Tehsil Jand
Malik Liaqat Ali Khan Nazim Tehsil Pindigheb
Raza Khan Nazim Tehsil Hazro
Attock fort was completed in 1583 under the supervision of Khawaja Shamsuddin Khawafi, a minister of EmperorAkbar. The Mughal caravan sarai outside the fort, which is almost on the G.T. Road, was also built during this period. Please note that no visitors are allowed inside the Fort.
Chhachh is a geographical region in the northern section of Attock, a district of Punjab, Pakistan, and south-west Hazara. Chhachh is a plain which rolls from the Hazara-Gandhara Hills south to Kamra, and from east of the Indus to the broken lands near Lawrencepur. It is the most fertile area of the Rawalpindi division. Almost 50% of the population of this area are of Pathan origin, who speak Pushto and hindko. The other 50% speak Hindko, a dialect of western Punjabi. The remaining population consists of Jats, Rajputs, Gujjars, Syeds, Awans, and other tribes. Chach people are called Chachies and they are revered for their vicious fighting ability in ancient times and more recently for their much advancement in education, culture, and society. It is known to be one of the most beautiful region in Pakistan due to its geostatistics. It is a valley surrounded by mountains from three sides and Indus river from one side. It offers the perfect shape of Pakistan's diverse culture.
Gandhara (gəndä'rə) , historic region of India, now in NW Pakistan. Situated astride the middle Indus River, the region had Taxila and Peshawar as its chief cities. It was originally a province of the Persian Empire and was reached (327 B.C.) by Alexander the Great. The region passed to Chandragupta, founder of the Maurya empire, in the late 4th cent. B.C., and under Asoka was converted (mid-3d cent.) to Buddhism. It was part of Bactria from the late 3d cent. to the 1st cent. B.C. Under the Kushan dynasty (1st cent.–3d cent. A.D.), and especially under Kanishka, Gandhara developed a noted school of sculpture, consisting mainly of images of Buddha and relief’s representing scenes from Buddhist texts, but with marked Greco-Roman elements of style. The art form flourished in Gandhara until the 5th cent., when the region was conquered by the Huns.
A treatise called Astadhyayi (or Astaka ) is Panini's major work. It consists of eight chapters, each subdivided into quarter chapters. In this work Panini distinguishes between the language of sacred texts and the usual language of communication. Panini gives formal production rules and definitions to describe Sanskrit grammar. Starting with about 1700 basic elements like nouns, verbs, vowels, consonants he put them into classes. The construction of sentences, compound nouns etc. is explained as ordered rules operating on underlying structures in a manner similar to modern theory. In many ways Panini's constructions are similar to the way that a mathematical function is defined today" Citied from (J J O'Connor and E F Robertson, Panini Biography, 2000) MacTutor History of Mathematics 
University of Punjab Affiliate Colleges
HEC Affiliate Institutes
|Administrative Divisions of Punjab (Pakistan)|
|Districts||Attock | Bahawalnagar | Bahawalpur | Bhakkar | Chakwal | Dera Ghazi Khan | Faisalabad | Gujranwala | Gujrat |Hafizabad | Jhang | Jhelum | Kasur | Khanewal | Khushab | Lahore | Layyah | Lodhran | Mandi Bahauddin |Mianwali | Multan | Muzaffargarh | Nankana Sahib | Narowal | Okara | Pakpattan | Rahim Yar Khan | Rajanpur |Rawalpindi | Sahiwal | Sargodha | Sheikhupura | Sialkot | Toba Tek Singh | Vehari|
|Spoken in:||Pakistan, Kashmir|
|Total speakers:||approx. 2.2 - 4 million|
|Writing system:||Nasta'liq script|
Hindko (هندکو /Hindkoŭ/), Hindku, or Peshawari (پشاوری) is an ancient Indo-Aryan language spoken by Hindkowans (Punjabi Pathans) in Pakistan. The literal meaning of the word "Hindko" is "Indian Mountains", or more specifically as "Mountains of the Induscountry". The word "Hind" is the Persianised reference to the regions associated with the Indus River immediately to the east ofPersia and "Ko" means mountains. The word Hindko has also been interpreted to mean the language of India. The term is also found in Greek references to the mountainous region in easternAfghanistan and northern Pakistan as Καύκασος Ινδικός (Caucasus Indicus). The language is spoken in the areas of the North West Frontier Province (including Hazara), Punjab and Kashmir by an estimated 2.2 to 4 million people.
There is no generic name for these people because they belong to diverse ethnicities and tend to identify themselves by the larger families or castes. However the people of the largest group in the districts of Haripur, Abbottabad and Mansehra are sometimes recognised collectively as Hazarawal, named after the defunctHazara Division that comprised of these districts. In Peshawar city they are referred to as "Kharay" meaning City-dwellers or Hindkowans.
During the pre-Buddhist era in present day Pakistan, the language of the masses was refined by the ancient grammarian Pāṇini, who set the rules of a structurally rigorous language called Sanskrit which was used principally for scriptures (analogous to Latin in the Western world). Meanwhile, the vernacular language of the masses, Prakritdeveloped into many tongues and dialects which spread over the northern parts of South Asia. Hindko is believed to be closely related to Prakrit. Due to the geographic isolation of the regions, it has undergone very little grammatical corruption, but has borrowed considerable vocabulary from its neighbours, in particular Pashto. It shows close affinity to Punjabi and the Lahnda sub-group of Indo-Aryan tongues and can be sub-divided into a northern and southern dialect (the southern dialect spoken in Pakistani Punjab shows some similarity with Siraiki as opposed to Punjabi). This language is very similar to the Mirpuri dialect of Potohari and Hindko and Mirpuri speakers can understand each other very well.
The largest geographically contiguous group of Hindko speakers is concentrated in the districts of state Abbottabad, Haripur, Mansehra, Attock and Kaghan valley of Pakistan, while there are a substantial number of geographically isolated speakers of Hindko in cities like Peshawar, Mardan and Kohat.
People here tend to associate themselves with the larger families instead of a language (or caste as it used to be called). The Qureshi(Arabians), for example, have a great history of bravery and are known as lords of the Hazara Division. Other tribes are Awan, Tanoli, Tareen, Jadoon, Abbasi, Karlal, Tahirkheli etc. People who speak Hindko are referred to by some academics as Punjabi Pathans probably because of the many Pashtun tribes, for example Jadoons,Tanolis and Tahirkhelis, who settled in places like Hazara, adopted Hindko as their first language and gained political power in these areas during the British rule, and also because of many ethnic Pushtun people who speak Hinkdo as their first language in Peshawar and Kohat. The Hindko speaking people living in major cities Peshawar, Kohat, Mardan are bilingual in Pashto and Hindko. Similarly many Pashto speaking people in districts like Abbottabad and Mansehra (especially in Agror Valley and northern Tanawal) have become bilingual in Pashto and Hindko.
The NWFP Imperial Gazetteer (1905) refers to the language as Hindko. More than one interpretation has been offered for the term Hindko. Some associate it with Hindustan (as the word may have been used during the medieval Muslim period in the Indian subcontinent), others with the Indus River which is of course the etymological source of all these terms. Farigh Bukhari and South Asian language expert and historian Christopher Shackle believe that Hindko was a generic term applied to the Indo-Aryan dialect continuum in the northwest frontier territories and adjacent district of Attock in the Punjab province to differentiate it from Pashto.
Linguists classify the language into the Indic subgroup of Indo-European languages and consider it to be one of theIndo-Iranian languages of the area. An estimated 2.4 per cent of the total population of Pakistan speak Hindko as their mother tongue, with more rural than urban households reporting Hindko as their household language. Madre Hindko
Riffat Akbar of Mansehra is called Madre Hindko a title of Hindko speaking people had given to her against her valuable services rendered for promoting this language. Riffat Akbar is an MPA from Mansehra and well known among Hindkians not only in Hazara Division but also in Peshawar and other cities of Pakistan.
There are several Hindko writers including Haider Zaman who translated Holy Quran in Hidko. Dr. Syed Mehboob a famous writer, researcher and columnist is also belongs to Hindko speaking area and settled in Karachi. He also wrote many stories and essays in Hindo language.
The speakers of Hindko live primarily in six districts: Mansehra, Abbottabad, Haripur, Peshawar, Nowshera and Kohatin NWFP, Attock and Rawalpindi in Punjab and parts of Kashmir; Jonathan Addleton states that "Hindko is the linguistic majority in the NWFP, represented in nearly one-fifth of the province's total households." In Abbottabad District 98 per cent of households reported speaking Hindko, in Mansehra District 77 per cent, in Peshawar District 17 per cent, and in Kohat District 10 per cent (1986). Testing of inherent intelligibility among Hindko dialects through the use of recorded tests has shown that there is a northern (Hazara) dialect group and a southern group. The southern dialects are more widely understood throughout the dialect network than are the northern dialects. The dialects of rural Peshawar and Talagang are the most widely understood of the dialects tested. The dialect of Balakot is the least widely understood.
In most Hindko-speaking areas, speakers of Pashto live in the same or neighbouring communities (although this is less true in Abbottabad and Kaghan Valley than elsewhere). In the mixed areas, many people speak both languages. The relationship between Hindko and Pashto is not one of stable bilingualism. In the northeast, Hindko is the dominant language both in terms of domain of usage and in terms of the number of speakers, whereas in the southwest, Pashto seems to be advancing in those same areas.
Hindko is also spoken by some Pathans who moved to northern India after the partition. Some of the most famous of these Indian Hindko speakers include Bollywood actors, Dilip Kumar and Prithviraj Kapoor.
The Gandhara Hindko Board has published the first dictionary of the language and its launching ceremony was held on March 16, 2003. According to a press release, Sultan Sakoon, a prominent Hindku poet, has compiled the dictionary.
1974: Phonlogy of Verbal Phrase in Hindko,Dr Elahi Bkahsh Akhtar Awan published by Idara-e-Farogh-e-Hindko Peshawar in 1992. 2004: Hindko Sautiyat,Dr E.B.A. Awan, published by Gandhara Hindko Board Peshawar in 2004. 2005: Hindko Land a thesis presented by Dr E.B.A. Awan at the World Hindko Conference at Peshawar in 2005.
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